A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

November 1 in History

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1755: 9:30 a.m. Holy Day worshippers crowded into Lisbon churches feel a slight shaking, a brief pause, and then a major earthquake lasting two minutes, and then another shock. The total time of the quake is ten minutes. After about an hour, the Taugus River suddenly recedes and then crashes ashore, flooding the city. There are several aftershocks. Tremors are felt in southern France and North Africa. Tidal activity is witnessed as far away as Danzig (Gdansk). Somewhere between 5,000 and 15,000 people are killed. Along with most of Lisbon, the Royal Palace, the biggest hospital, numerous churches and monasteries, and the new Tejo Theatre are flattened. Tejo’s collection of texts from the fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries is lost.
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1762: Seven Years War: French forces surrender at Kassel and evacuate the eastern bank of the Rhine.
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1765: The Stamp Act goes into effect in Britain’s North American colonies. Rioters in New York burn effigies and attack the homes of royal officials.
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1768: The earthly remains of Francesco Maria Veracini are placed in the family sepulchre in Chiesa d'Ognissanti, Florence.
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1769: Die Israeliten in der Wüste, an oratorio by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (55) to words of Schiebeler, is performed for the first time, in Hamburg.
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1769: Carl Ditters (29) begins six months service to Count Schafgotsch, Prince-Bishop of Breslau.
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1772: Antoine Lavoisier sends a note to the Secretary of the French Academy of Sciences stating that he has discovered that both sulfur and phosphorous gain weight upon heating. The discovery changes the study of chemistry and opens the door to the understanding of the makeup of air.
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1773: The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Hedwig is consecrated in Berlin, the “capital of the Protestants.”
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1776: Mission San Juan Capistrano is founded by Spanish missionaries 2,400 km northwest of Mexico City.
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1776: War of the American Revolution: The American army sets up defensive positions across the Bronx River to wait for a British attack which never comes.
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1777: Missa Sancti Hieronymi for chorus, oboes, bassoons, trombones and organ by Michael Haydn (40) is performed for the first time, in Salzburg.
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1777: Henry Laurens replaces John Hancock as President of the Congress of the United States.
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1779: Il matrimonio inaspettato, a dramma giocoso by Giovanni Paisiello (39) to words after Chiari, is performed for the first time, in Kammeniy Ostrov, St. Petersburg.
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1781: Emperor Joseph II abolishes Leibeigenschaft in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia.  Peasants are now free to marry, study any trade, and leave their land without permission of the lord.  He also requires lords to sell a peasant's land to him at a reasonable price, if the peasant desired it.  These measures will be extended to other provinces.
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1783: Publication of Six String Quartets B.301-306 by Ignaz Pleyel (26) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
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1784: The United States Congress convenes in Trenton, New Jersey.
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1784: From this day forward, by order of Emperor Joseph II, the language of the central administration of Hungary must be German.
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1785: By order of Emperor Joseph II, from this day forward, the language of the local administration of Hungary must be German.
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1788: The United States Confederation Congress adjourns for the last time.
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1788: Muzio Clementi’s (36) three piano trios op.22 are entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
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1790: Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France is published in Britain.
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1791: Effective this date, Emperor Leopold II removes Antonio Salieri (41) as music director of the Burgtheater, although he retains him as Hofkapellmeister.
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1792: Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles replaces Marguerite Elie Guadet as President of the National Convention of France.
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1793: The French government requires the use of the pronoun “tu” in all official correspondence.
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1796: Instructions on the Art of Playing the Piano Forte or Harpsichord by Jan Ladislav Dussek (36) and Ignaz Pleyel (39) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London. Also entered is Pleyel’s Six Progressive Sonatinas with violin accompaniment B.574-579.
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1796: Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras replaces Louis Marie de La Revellière, dit La Revellière-Lépeaux as President of the Executive Directory of France.
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1797: “The Naval Battle and Total Defeat of the Grand Dutch Fleet by Admiral Duncan on the 11. of October 1797” for piano by Jan Ladislav Dussek (37) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
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1799: After a dinner in Paris given by Lucien Bonaparte, General Napoléon Bonaparte and Director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès concoct a coup d’état.
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1800: Thoughts and Details on Scarcity by Edmund Burke is published in Britain by his literary executors, three years after his death. It was originally a memorandum to Prime Minister Pitt in 1795.
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1800: President John Adams and two assistants arrive in Washington. He takes up residence in the uncompleted White House.
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1802: The Duchies of Parma and Piacenza come under French rule. Jean Victor Moreau de Saint Méry is named commissioner.
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1808: The Electorate of Hesse-Cassel is annexed to Westphalia.
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1810: Nicholas Chopin begins duties as a French teacher at the Warsaw Gymnasium. To do so, he has moved his family, including Fryderyk (0), to the city.
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1810: As of this date, Napoléon’s Berlin and Milan decrees are revoked for the United States. Normal commerce between the two countries is hereby resumed.
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1812: Georg Joseph Vogler (63) plays the triorganon for the first time, at high mass in St. Michael’s Church in Munich. He recently completed construction of the instrument.
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1814: The official opening of the Congress of Vienna, planned for today, is put off due to the disagreements of the members.
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1814: The British Governor-General of India, Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Earl of Moira, declares war on the Gurkhas of Nepal.
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1822: Fire begins in Canton (Guangzhou) and will destroy much of the city.
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1827: Maria Szymanowska (37), her two daughters, and two sisters depart Warsaw to move to Moscow.
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1829: The Concert des sylphes from Huit scènes de Faust by Hector Berlioz (25) is performed for the first time, in the Salle du Conservatoire, Paris.
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1830: Felix Mendelssohn (21) arrives in Rome.
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1831: Scottish biologist Robert Brown reads the first part of his paper On the Organs and Mode of Fecundation in Orchideæ and Asclepiadeæ to the Linnean Society in London. It is the first detailed description of the cell nucleus. He will read the second part on 15 November.
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1831: Tsar Nikolay I issues an amnesty for Polish enlisted men, to be extended to officers, causing about 40,000 soldiers to return from Prussia and Austria to Poland. A total of 10,000 emigrate to France.
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1831: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (26) and his friend Nikolai Kuzmich Ivanov arrive in Naples.
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1832: At the Mendelssohn residence in Berlin, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (26) gives birth to a dead girl.
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1833: This month’s issue of Frazer’s Magazine begins the serialization of Sartor Resartus by Thomas Carlyle. It will continue through next August.
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1836: Protesting against forced removal, Seminoles in Florida under Osceola begin an armed struggle.
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1837: Karl von Abel replaces Georg Friedrich, Baron Zentner as President of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria.
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1837: Johann Strauss Sr. leads his orchestra in a performance of his Viennese waltzes in Paris before an appreciative audience which includes Luigi Cherubini (77), Daniel Auber (55), Giacomo Meyerbeer (46), Fromental Halévy (38), Adolphe Adam (34) and Hector Berlioz (33).
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1837: Lowell Mason (45) arrives back in Boston on a steamboat from New York after a six-month tour that took him to Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland, and France.
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1838: Frédéric Chopin (28), George Sand, her children, and maid board ship in Vendres making for Barcelona.
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1845: Incidental music to Sophocles’ play Oedipus at Colonos by Felix Mendelssohn (36) is performed for the first time, before King Friedrich Wilhelm IV in the Neues Palais, Potsdam. Public and press are unimpressed.
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1847: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s epic poem Evangeline is published in book form.
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1848: Halka, an opera by Stanislaw Moniuszko (29) to words of Wolski, is performed for the first time, in a concert setting in Vilnius. See 1 January 1858.
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1849: Johann Rudolf Thorbecke replaces Jacob Matthaeus de Kempanaer and Dirk Donker Curtius as chief minister of the Netherlands.
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1850: Troops of the German Confederation enter the Electorate of Hesse to put down a revolt of the landed classes against Elector Friedrich Wilhelm II. Prussia opposes the move, in opposition to Austria.
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1850: Poems by Elizabeth Barrett Browning is published. It is her first book under her own name and includes Sonnets from the Portuguese.
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1850: Giacomo Meyerbeer (59) is appointed a Knight of the Austrian Order of Franz Joseph.
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1853: At his home in Zürich, Richard Wagner (40) begins to compose Der Ring des Nibelungen.
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1853: Julius Blüthner opens his piano building business in Leipzig.
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1856: After Persia occupies Herat, Great Britain declares war on Persia.
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1857: The first issue of the Atlantic Monthly is published in Boston, edited by James Russell Lowell.
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1858: Oliver Wendell Holmes dates the preface to his collection of essays, The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, in Boston.
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1858: Governor-General Charles John Canning, Viscount Canning of India proclaims Queen Victoria sovereign over all India. All powers and territories held by the British East India Company are transferred to the British crown. Viscount Canning becomes the first British Viceroy of India.
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1861: John Knowles Paine (22) gives his first organ recital after arriving in Boston, at the Tremont Temple.
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1861: Adagio and Rondo Concertante D.487 for piano, violin, viola, and cello by Franz Schubert (†32) is performed for the first time, in the Ludwig Bösendorfer Salon, Vienna.
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1862: The Prelude to Die Meistersinger by Richard Wagner (49) is performed for the first time, in the Leipzig Gewandhaus conducted by the composer.
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1865: Epameinontas Mitrou Deligeorgis replaces Alexandros Koumoundouros as Prime Minister of Greece.
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1866: Sextet for Strings no.2 op.36 by Johannes Brahms (33) is performed for the first time, in Boston.
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1867: All restrictions on Jews’ right of residence, buying property, or profession are abolished by the states of the North German Federation.
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1868: Books 1 and 2 of the Hungarian Dances WoO1 for piano four hands by Johannes Brahms (35) are performed for the first time, in Oldenburg, by the composer and Clara Schumann (49).
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1869: The Cairo Opera House is inaugurated with a performance of Giuseppe Verdi’s (56) Rigoletto.
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1870: With promises of elections, the French government invades and seizes the Hôtel de Ville, putting down the revolution.
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1871: For the first time, Richard Wagner (58) writes to the town fathers in Bayreuth, laying out the plans for his new theatre. Their response is enthusiastic.
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1871: Angelo Mariani conducts a performance of Lohengrin at Teatro Communale, Bologna, the first performance of a Wagner (58) opera in Italy. Giuseppe Verdi (58) considers Mariani a traitor but this does not preclude him from attending a later performance on 19 November.
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1876: Alfred, Count von Fabrice replaces Richard, Baron Friesen as Prime Minister of Saxony.
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1876: King Willem III opens the North Sea Canal from Amsterdam to IJmuiden.
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1879: Néron by Anton Rubinstein (49) to words of Barbier and the composer, is performed for the first time, in the Hamburg Dammtortheater.
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1879: Carl Nielsen (14) becomes a full time musician as a cornet player in the band of the 16th Battalion in Odense.
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1881: Richard (68) and Cosima Wagner depart Bayreuth for another journey to Italy.
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1884: The International Prime Meridian Conference concludes in Washington. They have agreed on Greenwich as the Prime Meridian, and have defined the “universal day.”
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1885: Richard Strauss (21), with little training or experience, becomes court conductor in Meiningen after the resignation of Hans von Bülow.
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1886: An agreement between Great Britain and Germany establishes spheres of influence in East Africa (later to become Kenya and Tanganyika).
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1886: Giuseppe Verdi (73) writes the last note of Otello.
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1887: The British province of Baluchistan becomes part of India.
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1887: The Sorceress, an opera by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (47) to words of Shpazinsky, is performed for the first time, at the Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg. It is mildly successful but will receive only 13 performances. See 6 March 1887 and 17 March 1887.
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1888: Peer Gynt Suite no.1 op.46 for orchestra by Edvard Grieg (45) is performed for the first time, in the Leipzig Gewandhaus. See 24 October 1885.
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1890: The State of Mississippi begins enacting literacy requirements to bar blacks from voting.
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1891: At a contentious meeting of the Student Society in Christiania (Oslo), Edvard Grieg (48) advocates the removal of a symbol of the union with Sweden from the Norwegian flag. “I think the time has come to ask where our love really lies.”
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1891: Old Norwegian Melody with Variations op.51 for piano four hands by Edvard Grieg (48) is performed for the first time, in Brødrene Hals’ Koncertsal, Christiania (Oslo). Grieg also premieres his Lyric Pieces op.54/1, 2, 4, and 5. See 21 February 1904.
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1892: An obituary for Robert Franz written by Eduard Hanslick appears in the Neue Freie Presse.  "With the death of Robert Franz, the last of the glorious circle has now departed which in youthful enthusiasm rallied around the banner of Romanticism unfurled by Mendelssohn and Schumann...Only Clara Schumann remains as the Madonna of the Davidsbündler-and God grant her a long life!  The last fading lights are now extinguishing from Leipzig's golden age.  Robert Franz was one of the most appreciated and talented of this circle." (Haas, 48)
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1892: Mlada, an opera-ballet by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (48) to his own words after Krilov, is performed for the first time, at the Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg.
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1893: About 700 British South Africa Company Police engaged in an invasion of Matabeleland (Zimbabwe) are set upon by thousands of Ndebele warriors near the Bembesi River. They beat off the attack with heavy losses through the use of Maxim guns.
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1894: Antonín Dvorák (53) resumes his duties as director of the National Conservatory, New York.
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1894: Tsar Alyeksandr III of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, King of Poland dies in Livadiya in the Crimea and is succeeded by his son, Nikolay II.
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1894: The French newspaper La Libre Parole begins a campaign to label Capt. Alfred Dreyfus as a traitor.
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1894: Dr. Pierre-Paul-Émile Roux announces a vaccine for diphtheria in Paris.
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1895: Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy is published in book form.
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1895: Léon Bourgeois replaces Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot as Prime Minister of France.
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1895: After resigning his position in New York, Antonín Dvorák (54) resumes his composition classes at Prague Conservatory.
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1896: Maurice Ravel (21) attends a concert in Paris with his friend Ricardo Viñes. During the Prelude to Tristan und Isolde, Viñes will record, “…he who looks so cold and cynical, Ravel the super-eccentric decadent, was trembling convulsively and crying like a child, really deeply too because every now and then I hear him sobbing.” (Nichols, Ravel, 24)
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1897: The Ferryman’s Brides for solo voice and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (31) to words of Oksanen is performed for the first time, in Helsinki conducted by the composer.
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1897: At the height of the demonstrations occurring at every performance of Folkeraadet in Christiania (Oslo) since 18 October, a man fires three shots (albeit blanks) at Per Winge as he conducts Frederick Delius’ (35) incidental music. The man is removed by police.
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1898: Richard Strauss (34) enters duties as conductor of the Berlin Hofoper (first Kapellmeister to the Court of Prussia).
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1899: Franz Lehár (29) arrives in Vienna “to make a name for myself.”
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1899: Second Boer War: British forces in Ladysmith attack out against the Boers.  The attack fails and 800 British are captured.
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1902: The Philadelphia Orchestra Association is incorporated.
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1902: In an exchange of letters, agreement is reached between France and Italy over conflicting colonial claims in North Africa.
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1905: Ralph Vaughan Williams (33) and his wife move to 13 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.
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1910: Gustav Mahler (50) conducts the first concert of his last season with the New York Philharmonic.
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1910: This month, the Journal of the American Medical Association, publishes an article by Dr. James B. Herrick which describes sickle-cell anemia.
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1910: On the day that the strike by 147,000 South Wales miners goes into effect, 30,000 other miners decide to join the strike in solidarity.
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1911: The British expedition under Robert F. Scott departs their base camp on McMurdo Sound making for the South Pole.
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1911: The Chevrolet Motor Company is incorporated in Detroit by William Durant and Louis Chevrolet.
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1911: Italo-Turkish War: Giulio Gavotti becomes the first person to deliver explosives by means of an airplane when he drops four grenades on Turkish troops at Tagiura (Tajura) Oasis and Ain Zara.
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1912: In today’s issue of Physikalische Zeitschrift, Victor Hess makes the first report by a professional physicist that Earth is bombarded by radiation from outer space.
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1912: First Balkan War: Serbian forces occupy Durrës.
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1912: Invited by a friend to the home of the Guimarães family in Rio de Janeiro, Heitor Villa-Lobos (25) meets their daughter, Lucília, a piano teacher. A little over a year from now, they will marry.
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1912: The Netherlands announces it will adhere to international copyright laws.
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1913: His father having renounced all claims to the throne, Ernst August becomes Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg.
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1913: Ruggero Leoncavallo’s (56) farce Are You There?, to words of de Courville and Wallace, is performed for the first time, at the Prince of Wales Theatre, London. It is an unmitigated disaster.
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1914: World War I: German troops at Ypres capture the ridges of Messines and Wytschaete.

19:00 British and German ships engage off Coronel, Chile. Two British ships, HMS Monmouth and HMS Good Hope are sunk at the cost of 1,654 lives.

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1916: World War I: 11:00 Austro-Hungarians and Italians battle each other along the Isonzo River for the ninth time. After a week of on and off artillery bombardment, Italians attack and break through the Austrian lines.
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1917: World War I: British forces begin an assault on Gaza.
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1917: Georg, Count Hertling replaces Georg Michaelis as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia.
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1917: Five Poems of Ancient China and Japan op.10 for solo voice and piano by Charles T. Griffes (33) to words of East Asian poets, are performed for the first time, in Aeolian Hall, New York, the composer at the piano.
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1918: World War I: Italian troops take Belluno, 80 km north of Venice.

180 mutineers are arrested by German naval authorities at Kiel.

French forces enter Belgrade.

American forces begin an offensive towards Sedan, smashing through the German lines at Buzancy and advancing eight km.

YMCA Music Organizer Gustav Holst (44) arrives in France.

Seven leaders of the ruling party of Turkey escape Constantinople aboard a German destroyer.

Italian saboteurs blow up the Austrian battleship SMS Viribus Unitis and the freighter Wien in the harbor of Pola (Pula, Croatia). The ship was recently transferred from Austria to the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, but the Italians are unaware of that. 300-400 men are lost.

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1918: The Norwegian ship Bergensfjord, with Sergey Rakhmaninov (45) and his wife aboard, steams out of Christiania (Oslo) for the United States. The composer has three offers in the US, but no definite plans, except to get away from Europe.
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1918: War begins between Poland and Ukraine over Galicia.
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1918: Mihály, Count Károlyi proclaims the independence of Hungary.
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1918: The Society for Private Performances is formed in Vienna.
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1918: 90-100 people are killed when a subway train goes off the tracks in Flatbush, Brooklyn.
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1918: Russian Civil War: The British government recognizes the Provisional All-Russian Government as the legitimate government for Russia.
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1919: In spite of a federal injunction, 400,000 coal miners go on strike in the US.
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1919: The United States government opens Indian reservations in Arizona to prospectors.
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1920: In the first general election in Greece since the war, the Liberal Party of Eleftherios Venizelos loses power, despite the fact it received more than half the vote.
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1920: La Revue Musicale begins publication in Paris. In it, a review of the music of Heitor Villa-Lobos (33) appears, written by Darius Milhaud (28). It is the first notice of the music of Villa-Lobos in a European periodical.
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1921: Summer Music for orchestra by Arnold Bax (37) is performed for the first time, in Queen’s Hall, London.
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1921: The State Institute for Musical Science is officially established in Moscow from the Music Department of the People’s Commissariat of Education.
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1921: The American Academy jury chooses Howard Hanson (25) as the first Frederick Juilliard Fellow. He will study with Ottorino Respighi (42).
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1922: The Turkish parliament separates the offices of Sultan and Caliph and abolishes the Sultanate. Sultan Mehmet VI continues as Caliph. The Ottoman Empire is over.
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1922: Berceuse sur le nom de Gabriel Fauré for violin and piano by Maurice Ravel (47) is performed for the first time, in Milan.
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1922: The First Violin Concerto op.35 by Karol Szymanowski (40) is performed for the first time, in Warsaw.
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1923: Aero O/Y, founded by Bruno Lucander, begins operations. In 1953 the name will be changed to Finnair.
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1923: In perhaps the first inclusion of jazz in an American concert hall, George Gershwin (25) is one of two pianists used to accompany Canadian soprano Eva Gauthier in an eclectic recital in Aeolian Hall, New York including some contemporary popular song.
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1923: Luxembourgeois inventor Hugo Gernsback demonstrates his Staccatophone over New York radio station WJZ. It is an electronic piano with vacuum tubes producing all the pitches of the keyboard.
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1924: The British Empire Exhibition in Wembley closes after its first year.
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1924: Songs for voice and piano by Carl Nielsen (59) are performed for the first time, in Odd Fellow Palæet, Copenhagen: The Fiddler is Playing His Fiddle, to words of Damm, When Babies Whimper Before the Candle, to words of Dabelsteen, and Two Larks in Love Have Nested, and Look! the Sun is Red, Mum, both to words of Bergstedt.
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1925: The first movement of the Symphony no.6 by Carl Nielsen (60) is performed for the first time, privately in the Musikalska Akademien, Stockholm, the composer conducting. See 11 December 1925.
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1926: Krämerspiegel, a pastiche for voice and piano by Richard Strauss (62) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
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1927: Virgil Thomson (30) moves into a studio in the quai Voltaire, Paris. Tomorrow he will begin composing Four Saints in Three Acts.
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1928: Turkey adopts a modified Roman alphabet to replace the Arabic alphabet. The law goes into effect next 1 January.
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1928: The National Opera House opens in Tashkent.
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1928: A Bohemian-Danish Folksong set for string orchestra by Carl Nielsen (63) is performed for the first time, in Copenhagen, broadcast by Danish State Radio.
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1929: The Delius (67) Festival concludes in London with a performance of A Mass of Life. The composer and his wife will leave shortly for home at Grez-sur-Loing.
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1929: Rhapsody no.1 for violin and orchestra by Béla Bartók (48) is performed for the first time, in Königsberg.
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1932: Canzone from the Six Compositions for Carillon by Gian Carlo Menotti (21) is performed for the first time, in Richmond, Virginia.
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1932: The Physical Review publishes “Experimental Establishment of the Relativity of Time” by Americans Roy Kennedy and Edward Thorndike. They explain the experiment in which they demonstrate the relativity of time as postulated by Albert Einstein.
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1932: George Gershwin (34) conducts and performs his works at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York.
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1932: Konstantin Päts replaces Kaarel Eenpalu as Head of State of Estonia.
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1935: Representatives of Bolivia and Paraguay at the peace conference in Buenos Aires declare the Chaco War over, even though a final agreement is yet to be reached.
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1936: Incidental music to The Agamemnon of Aeschylus (tr. MacNeice) by Benjamin Britten (22) is performed for the first time, in the Westminster Theatre, London.
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1936: Benito Mussolini announces the “Rome-Berlin” axis, an alliance between Italy and Germany.
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1938: Owens-Illinois and Corning Glass form a joint venture to produce their new product, Owens Corning Fiberglas®.
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1938: The Man With a Gun, a film with music by Dmitri Shostakovich (32), is shown for the first time.
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1939: Hermann Göring issues orders creating the Main Trustee Office East to handle the expropriation of wealth and property in Poland.
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1939: John D. Rockefeller, Jr. drives the final rivet into 10 Rockefeller Plaza, thus completing the nine year, 14 building project in Manhattan.
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1941: The “Rainbow Bridge”, an international bridge over the Niagara River, opens to traffic.
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1941: Sergey Rakhmaninov (68) plays a benefit recital at Carnegie Hall for Russian relief charities.
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1942: Went the Day Well?, a film with music by William Walton (40), is shown for the first time, in the London Pavilion.
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1942: Processional for organ by Henry Cowell (45) is performed for the first time, in the National Cathedral, Washington.
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1942: World War II: German troops capture Alagir in the Caucasus.
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1943: Kurt Weill (43) moves to Hollywood from New York to live while he works on a film with Ira Gershwin.
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1943: World War II: American troops begin landing on Bougainville at Cape Tarokina, also taking Puruata Island.

Soviet forces capture Armyansk, cutting off Axis troops in Crimea.

British troops take Roccamonfina, 140 km southeast of Rome.

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1944: World War II: American troops take Baybay on the western shore of Leyte.

The Japanese troopship Asama Maru is torpedoed and sunk by a US submarine off Pratas Island in the South China Sea. 440 men go down with her. 1,434 of those aboard survive.

Soviet forces take Kecskemet, 80 km south of Budapest.

British troops enter Flushing (Vlissingen).

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1945: Railroads in Palestine are sabotaged at 50 points between Acre (Akko) and Gaza. A bomb explodes at the Jerusalem station. Jewish terrorists are blamed.
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1945: Panagiotis Kanellopoulos replaces Archibishop Damaskinos as Prime Minister of Greece.
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1945: The Northwest German Radio Symphony Orchestra gives its first performance, directed by Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt in Hamburg. It was created by the British in an attempt to return Germany to “normalcy.”
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1945: The Commonwealth of Australia ratifies the United Nations Charter.
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1945: 21 German bankers are arrested on suspicion of war crimes.
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1946: 1,279 Jewish refugees are transported from Haifa to Cyprus by the British.
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1946: Vocalise op.27 for cello and piano by Vincent Persichetti (31) is performed for the first time, in Wayne, Pennsylvania.
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1947: Canticle I “My beloved is mine” op.40, for voice and piano by Benjamin Britten (33) to words of Quarles, is performed for the first time, in Central Hall, Westminster by Peter Pears and the composer.
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1947: Nauru is created a trust territory by the United Nations, under the auspices of Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
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1947: An earthquake in the Junín Region of central Peru kills over 1,200 people.
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1948: Lina Prokofieva is tried by a military tribunal of the Supreme Court of the USSR.  After a trial of 15 minutes, she is sentenced to 20 years hard labor.
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1948: Paul Hindemith’s (52) Cello Sonata is performed for the first time, over the airwaves of the BBC.
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1948: Turkey stops issuing permits to its Jewish citizens to go to Israel. However, many Jews gain permits to other countries, then travel from there to Israel.
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1948: All health care and movie theatres in Romania are nationalized.
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1948: Chinese communist forces crush nationalists at Mukden (Shenyang), 620 km northeast of Peking.
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1950: In Puerto Rico, the revolt is effectively over. 31 people have been killed. Leading members of the Nationalist and Communist Parties are arrested.
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1950: For Peace op.68, a cantata by Alois Hába (57) to words of Faltis (pseud. of Vackár) and the composer, is performed for the first time, in Prague.
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1950: Electricity is restored to Seoul for the first time in four months.
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1950: Pope Pius XII pronounces dogma on the bodily Assumption of the Virgin.
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1950: The UN General Assembly votes to extend the term of Secretary-General Trygve Lie for three years.
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1950: Two Puerto Rican nationalists attack Blair House, the temporary presidential quarters, in Washington, in an attempt to kill President Truman. The attackers kill one guard and wound two others before one attacker is killed and the other captured. The president is unharmed.
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1950: La Fraîcheur et le feu, a cycle for voice and piano by Francis Poulenc (51) to words of Eluard, is performed for the first time, in Birmingham, the composer at the keyboard.
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1951: Nikolaos Plastiras replaces Sophoklis Eleftheriou Venizelos as Prime Minister of Greece.
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1951: An orchestral suite from Stefan Wolpe’s (49) ballet The Man from Midian is performed for the first time, by the New York Philharmonic.
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1951: Korean War: Truce negotiators at Panmunjom agree to the eastern half of the truce line.
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1951: Moroccans riot in Casablanca against the French on local election day. Six people are killed, 60 injured.
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1951: Ricercare and Toccata on a Theme from “The Old Maid and the Thief” for piano by Gian Carlo Menotti (40) is performed for the first time, in Town Hall, New York.
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1952: The first atomic fusion bomb (hydrogen bomb) is detonated on Enewetak Atoll by the United States.
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1954: In elections held today, Major General Fulgencio Batista and his followers are swept back into power in Cuba.
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1954: Chinese aircraft attack Tachin (Dachen) Islands off Chekiang (Zhejiang) Province.
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1954: Two works with music by Bernd Alois Zimmermann (36) are heard for the first time, in recordings over Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk, Cologne: the radio play Hiob-der Glaubende und die Schrifgelehrten by Lieven, and Der tolle Invalide auf dem Fort Ratonneau, a feature after Achim von Arnim.
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1954: All French possessions in the subcontinent are turned over to Indian administration.
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1954: The Algerian National Liberation Front begins its war of independence with several small attacks on French installations throughout the country. Nine Frenchmen are killed.
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1955: In a two-hour meeting with French Foreign Minister Antoine Pinay in Paris, Sidi Mohammed ben Youssef reaches agreement with the French government.
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1956: Indian states are reorganized, largely by language. The number is reduced from 27 to 14.
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1956: It is reported that Soviet troops are entering Hungary. Prime Minister Imre Nagy announces that his government has withdrawn from the Warsaw Pact and is declaring neutrality. The Party publicly supports neutrality and calls for the withdrawal of Soviet troops. However, János Kádár and five or six other Party leaders disappear and with Soviet help, reappear in Uzhgorod (Uzhhorod), Ukraine.
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1956: Suez War: Israeli forces capture El Arish and Rafah, cutting off the Gaza Strip. Egypt breaks diplomatic relations with Great Britain and France. President Nasser orders all British and French property to be registered for confiscation. British and French planes continue to bomb targets in the Canal and Delta areas.
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1957: The Mackinac Bridge opens over the Straits of Mackinac, joining the two parts of the State of Michigan. Its total length is 8,038 meters.
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1961: Te Lucis Ante Terminum for chorus and instrumental ensemble by Peter Maxwell Davies (27) to words of the Roman Missal is performed publicly for the first time, in the Parish of St. John the Baptist, Cirencester conducted by the composer.
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1961: Riots occur throughout Algeria marking the seventh anniversary of the beginning of the war against France. 86 people are killed, 150 injured. 56 explosions went off in Algiers in the night 31 October-1 November. 30 explosions go off in Oran. Five rebel leaders go on a hunger strike to protest removal of privileges by the French authorities as cabinet members of the provisional government. 4,000 Algerian prisoners begin a concurrent hunger strike.
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1962: Two songs by Charles Ives (†8) are performed for the first time, at the Philadelphia Art Alliance: The Cage and Soliloquy, both to his own words.
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1962: When U Thant returns to New York without an agreement on the inspection of missile dismantling, the US resumes its quarantine of Cuba.
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1963: Marc Blitzstein (58) arrives in Martinique and begins searching for a house to spend the winter and work on his unfinished opera projects.
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1963: Two black students are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi when they try to attend a concert by the Royal Philharmonic in a segregated hall. The two are held overnight despite the fact that they each hold a valid ticket.
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1963: President Ngo Dinh Diem of the Republic of Vietnam and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu are killed in a military coup directed by General Duong Van Minh, who takes over the government and institutes a dictatorship.
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1964: Revenge, a film with music by Toshiro Mayuzumi (35), is released in Japan.
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1964: Two new works are performed for the first time, in Coolidge Auditorium, Library of Congress, Washington: Bomarzo, a cantata by Alberto Ginastera (48) to words of Mujica Láinez, and The Feast of Love for baritone and orchestra by Virgil Thomson (67) from Pervigilium veneris (tr. Thomson).
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1964: Viet Cong forces raid the US Air Base at Bien Hoa, 20 km north of Saigon. They destroy five planes and damage 18 others, as well as four helicopters.
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1965: Elections to the Israeli Knesset see slight gains for the leftist Alignment who form the new coalition.
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1966: The Indian state of Punjab is divided into Punjab and Haryana, along linguistic lines. Chandigarh is the capital for both.
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1966: Vietnam War: Viet Cong terrorists send 24 shells into a crowd of people during National Day ceremonies in Saigon. They also explode a hand grenade in a Saigon bus terminal. Eight people are killed in the attacks.
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1966: The UN General Assembly votes to extend the term of Secretary-General U Thant until the end of the current Assembly session.
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1967: 24-year-old Konstantinos Daoutis, a shopkeeper, is sentenced to four years in prison by a Greek military tribunal for selling a record by Mikis Theodorakis (42).
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1967: The film Cool Hand Luke is released in the United States.
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1968: Vietnam War: Operation Rolling Thunder comes to an end. Three years of bombing of North Vietnam come to a halt. In an attempt to stop North Vietnamese support of the south, 182,000 civilians (by US estimates) have been killed. North Vietnam announces that it accepts expanded talks to include the Viet Cong and the Saigon government.
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1969: The first performance of the Scratch Orchestra takes place in Hampstead Town Hall.
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1970: A fire in the Club Cinq-Sept near Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, Isère, France kills 146 people.
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1971: Fancies and Inventions for solo voice, flute, clarinet, violin, cello, and piano by Hugo Weisgall (59) to words of Herrick is performed for the first time, at the Baltimore Museum of Art, directed by the composer.
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1971: Gonville Aubrey Ffrench-Beytagh, Anglican dean of Johannesburg, is convicted in a Pretoria court of plotting to overthrow the government of South Africa and is sentenced to five years in prison.
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1972: Ezra Pound dies in Venice at the age of 87.
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1972: 15 letter bombs addressed to Jewish businesses and organizations in Britain are discovered at the Kuala Lampur post office and made safe by the Malaysian army. A local Arab organization is responsible for them and 20 others found in Malaysia.
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1972: Concerto for piano and orchestra no.2 by Ross Lee Finney (65) is performed for the first time, in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
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1973: The Greek government says Mikis Theodorakis (48) may return to the country. They allow 40 songs of Theodorakis to be performed.
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1973: Acting US Attorney General Robert Bork appoints Leon Jaworski as Watergate Special Prosecutor, replacing Archibald Cox.
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1973: The Italian government lifts the price freeze on most foods and other products.
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1974: Kraftwerk releases its album Autobahn.
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1975: Thailand and Cambodia establish full diplomatic relations.
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1975: Security forces of the fascist US-backed government of Chile arrest Dr. Sheila Cassidy, a British citizen, in Santiago. She treated an opponent of the regime. Over the next two months she will be tortured.
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1975: Parson Weems and the Cherry Tree, a ballet by Virgil Thomson (78) to a scenario by Hawkins, is performed for the first time, in the Fine Arts Center Concert Hall at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
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1977: The US Drug Enforcement Agency reports widespread recreational use of a veterinary tranquilizer called phencyclidine (PCP). As an additive to marijuana it is colloquially known as “angel dust.”
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1977: The Rivers of Hell for seven players by Robin Holloway (34) is performed for the first time, in Wigmore Hall, London.
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1977: Curriculum vitae for accordion by Lukas Foss (55) is performed for the first time, in New York. See 10 March 1981.
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1977: The TU-144, the Soviet supersonic transport, inaugurates regular service with a flight from Moscow to Alma Ata (Almaty).
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1978: Employees of Iran Air go on strike in opposition to the Shah.
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1978: US President Carter announces emergency actions to shore up the dollar. The New York Stock Exchange responds with its largest one-day rise to date.
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1979: The Liberian freighter Mimosa rams the Liberian tanker Burmah Agate eight km south of Galveston. Both ships burst into flame, spilling 250,000 barrels of oil into the sea.
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1979: Afternoon: a Cakewalk-Rag Suite for clarinet, violin, and piano by William Bolcom (41) is performed for the first time, in City Center, New York.
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1981: Antigua and Barbuda, under Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Vere Cornwall Bird, gains independence from Great Britain, in ceremonies at St. Johns.
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1981: Wölfli-Liederbuch for bass-baritone and piano by Wolfgang Rihm (29) is performed for the first time, in Graz.
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1982: Newsweek magazine exposes a covert program supervised by the American ambassador to Honduras to train Nicaraguan conservatives to overthrow the government. The Reagan Administration does not deny the report.
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1983: Governor-General Paul Scoon asserts his authority to govern Grenada in the name of Queen Elizabeth II.
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1984: Indian troops enter nine cities to quell violence against Sikhs. Curfews are imposed in 30 cities. As many as 300,000 people crowd Teen Murti house in New Dehli where Prime Minister Gandhi’s body lies in state. The throng attempting to pay their respects breaks barriers and police are required to use tear gas to disperse them.
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1985: Burke and Wills, a film with music by Peter Sculthorpe (56), is shown for the first time, in Hoyts Cinema Center, Melbourne.
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1985: Etudes 4 and 5 from Györgi Ligeti’s (62) Etudes pour piano Book I are performed for the first time, in Hamburg.
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1985: Amichai Songs for mezzo-soprano, oboe/english horn, bass viola da gamba, and harpsichord by Shulamit Ran (36) to words of Yehudi Amichai, is performed for the first time, in Rochester, New York.
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1985: Tuija-Maija Niskanen's film Suuri illusioni, with music by Kaija Saariaho (33), is shown for the first time, in Helsinki.
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1986: By act of Congress, Aaron Copland (85) is awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest congressional honor awarded to civilians.
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1986: From a Source Evolving for orchestra by Leslie Bassett (63) is performed for the first time, in Midland, Michigan.
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1986: Over 1,000 tons of toxic chemicals, including eight tons of mercury, spill into the Rhine after a warehouse fire in Basel. The ecology is damaged for 300 km downstream.
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1987: Deng Xiaopeng resigns from the Politburo and Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
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1988: In national elections in Israel, the conservative Likud bloc wins a narrow victory over the center-left Labor Party. Religious parties do unexpectedly well. Likud will lead the next governing coalition.
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1988: The South African government bans the Weekly Mail for one month.
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1989: East Germany opens the border with Czechoslovakia.
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1989: President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua announces an end to the unilateral cease-fire with right-wing rebels.
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1989: Islamic Jihad terrorists kill Mohammed Ali Marzouki, the last Saudi diplomat in Beirut.
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1991: How Sweet the Winds do Blow for baritone and Renaissance instruments by Peter Schickele (56) is performed for the first time, in Albany, New York, the composer as vocal soloist.
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1991: The Russian Congress of Peoples Deputies votes broad powers to President Yeltsin to deal with the economy.
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1993: Popular music entertainer Flavor Flav is arrested in New York and charged with attempted murder.
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1993: After a two-year ratification process, the European Union (Maastrictht Treaty) goes into effect.
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1995: Concerto for flute, harp, and orchestra op.48 by Lowell Liebermann (34) is performed for the first time, in Minneapolis.
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1995: Talks open at an air force base near Dayton, Ohio between the presidents of Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia with US negotiators to end the war in the former Yugoslavia.
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1996: Contre Nature for percussion and synthesized sounds by Jean-Claude Risset (58) is performed for the first time, in Nice.
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1997: Shouts for oboe, violin, cello, and piano by TJ Anderson (69) is performed for the first time, in Chicago.
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1998: Wolfgang Rihm’s (46) rhapsody for trumpet, percussion, and orchestra Marsyas is performed for the first time, in Karlsruhe. See 24 March 2000.
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1998: Three Songs for children’s voices by Toshi Ichiyanagi (65), to words of Mado, is performed for the first time, in Nagoya.
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2000: Israeli and Arab leaders reach agreement on a truce.
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2000: Part of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh becomes the State of Chhattisgarh.
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2000: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is admitted to the United Nations.
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2001: Symphony no.6 “After One Hundred Years” for soprano and orchestra by Toshi Ichiyanagi (68) to words of Tagore is performed for the first time, over the airwaves of NHK.
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2002: Bid Call for alto saxophone and cello by Libby Larsen (51) is performed for the first time, at Indiana State University.
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2002: Branko Crvenkovski of the leftist Social Democratic Union replaces conservative Ljubco R. Georgievski as Prime Minister of Macedonia at the head of a multi-ethnic coalition.
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2002: A federal court judge in Washington approves a settlement between the US Justice Department and Microsoft Corp in the antitrust case.
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2004: A bomb kills three people and the bomber in a marketplace in Tel Aviv. 32 people are injured.
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2004: Martial law is declared in parts of Hunan Province after four days of violence between Han Chinese and Hui Moslems.
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2005: Four days of violent protests begin in Addis Ababa over the results of elections last May. 46 people are killed.
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2006: The UN Security Council extends the mandate of the Côte d'Ivoire transitional government until 31 October 2007.
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2006: William Styron dies on Martha's Vineyard at the age of 81.
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2006: Israeli troops capture Beit Hanoun in northern Gaza to prevent rockets being fired at Israel.  Over 800 have been fired from the town over the last year.
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2008: Songs Old and New for voice and orchestra by Ned Rorem (85) is performed for the first time, in Germantown, Tennessee.
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2011: For Andie Springer for violin and guitar by Robert Ashley (81) is performed for the first time, in New York.
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2011: Stormwatch, Stormfall for horn trio by Peter Maxwell Davies (77) is performed for the first time, in the Phillip T. Young Recital Hall, University of Victoria, British Columbia.
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2011: Brefs messages for nine players by György Kurtág (85) is performed for the first time, in Geneva.
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2016: Pulse for winds, strings, piano, and electric bass by Steve Reich (80) is performed for the first time, in Carnegie Hall, New York.